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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-September 2022
Volume 39 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 119-163

Online since Friday, September 30, 2022

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Dynamic somatosensory evoked potential and magnetic resonance imaging in pudendal neuropathy: A comparative study with respect to the clinical diagnostic criteria p. 119
Burcu Ormeci, Handan Uzunçakmak Uyanık, Neslihan Taşdelen, Elif Çiğdem Keleş, Tibet Erdoğru, Ali Emre Öge
Aim: Pudendal neuropathy (PN) is a common cause of chronic perineal pain and usually diagnosed long after the onset of symptoms. Diagnostic work-up of PN mainly includes radiologic and neurophysiological studies. However, there is no established diagnostic test to confirm the clinical diagnosis. This study aims to evaluate the correlation between the dynamic pudendal somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) and pudendal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with PN diagnosed clinically based on Nantes criteria as the gold standard for comparison. Methods: Forty-three patients (25 females, 18 males) were included in the study. Dynamic pudendal SEP as a novel method, which includes both provocative positioning and stimulation of each side separately, and pudendal MRI were performed in each patient. Results: Dynamic pudendal SEPs were found to be abnormal in 42, normal in 12 of the 54 clinically symptomatic nerves and abnormal in 2, normal in 30 of the 32 clinically asymptomatic nerves. Pudendal MRI was abnormal in 19, normal in 35 of the 54 clinically symptomatic nerves and abnormal in 8 and normal in 24 of the 32 clinically asymptomatic nerves. There was 84% agreement between clinical diagnosis and dynamic pudendal SEP (high sensitivity and specificity), 49% agreement between clinical diagnosis and pudendal MRI (low sensitivity and acceptable specificity), 53% agreement between dynamic pudendal SEP and pudendal MRI. Conclusions: The novel dynamic pudendal SEP method seems to be useful in supporting the clinical diagnosis of PN, while pudendal MRI lacks sufficient sensitivity to be used alone in diagnosis of PN.
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Comparison of semiologic characteristics of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures and frontal and temporal lobe seizures p. 126
Kubra Isik, Gulin Morkavuk, Burak Mete, Guray Koc
Introduction: Video electroencephalography monitoring (VEM) is the gold standard for differentiating epileptic seizures and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). This study aimed to compare the semiologic characteristics of PNES and frontal and temporal seizures. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted retrospectively on the records of patients aged over 18 years with PNES and frontal and temporal lobe seizures, who were followed up as inpatients in the Ufuk University Neurology Clinic VEM unit between 2016 and 2020. Seventy-two patients who met the study criteria and were hospitalized during this period were included in the study. The preictal, ictal, and postictal semiologic characteristics of the patients were examined and compared in terms of the seizure type. Results: Of the 72 patients included in the study, 29.2% had PNES, 15.3% had frontal lobe epilepsy, and 41.7% had temporal lobe epilepsy. The mean age of the patients was 32.74 ± 9.84 years. In patients with PNES, frequent semiologic changes, frequent medical visits, ability to execute commands, remembering test words, forced eye closure, subjective sensory symptoms, ictal crying, tremor in extremities, gradual onset, fluctuating course, postictal pseudo-sleep, pelvic thrusting movement, and arrhythmic synchronous extremity movement manifestations were determined to be significantly higher compared with frontal and temporal lobe epilepsies. Conclusion: Seizure semiology is important in the differential diagnosis of epileptic seizures and PNES. VEM remains the gold standard for differentiating PNES and epileptic seizures.
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Significance of pure sensory manifestations in estimating electromyography results in cervical radiculopathy p. 132
Merve Bahar Ercan, Hidayet Reha Kuruoglu
Background: The sensitivity of electromyography (EMG) in cervical radiculopathy (CR) is reportedly higher in patients with objective neurological findings, but many patients are sent to the EMG laboratory with only pain and paresthesias. Aims: We aimed to assess the diagnostic contribution of EMG in patients with sensory manifestations without objective neurological deficits. Settings and Design: The files of patients with neck pain radiating to the shoulder and arm on the same side referred to the EMG Laboratory were retrospectively evaluated. EMG findings of those with pure sensory manifestations were compared with the results obtained from patients with objective neurological deficits. Subjects and Methods: Patients with subjective sensory manifestations were separated into two groups according to the specificity of the presenting symptoms, who were compared with subjects with neurological findings in the upper extremity. Clinical diagnoses of the patients were compared with the electrodiagnostic testing results. Statistical Analysis: Categorical variables were analyzed with multi-span Chi-square test, while individual groups were compared utilizing Fisher's exact test. One-way analysis of variance was employed to assess the significance of group differences for quantitative values. Results: EMG rarely confirmed CR in patients with purely sensory symptoms. Some of these patients were found to have unexpected peripheral neuropathy syndromes. Both paraspinal and limb muscle EMG abnormalities indicative of CR were not only more common, but also helpful in localization in patients with objective clinical findings. Conclusions: CR patients presenting only with pain and paresthesias even in a specific dermatomal distribution usually demonstrate no abnormalities in EMG examination. However, some of these patients harbor unsuspected entrapment neuropathies.
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Neurological manifestations and mortality in hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 patients Highly accessed article p. 138
Tugba Ozel, Nazan Şimşek Erdem, Ali Ünal, Ata Nevzat Yalçın, Dilara İnan, Nevruz Ilhanli, Hilmi Uysal
Purpose: The purpose of the study is to analyze the neurological manifestations and to determine the association between these symptoms and mortality in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Materials and Methods: Five hundred and forty-seven hospitalized patients with positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in a nasopharyngeal swab were included in this study. The demographic features, laboratory data, and radiologic imaging, neurological symptoms of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were collected. Results: Of 547 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, the median age was 61 (range 18–93), 61.4% were male. Three hundred and forty-seven (63.4%) patients had a severe infection and 200 (36.6%) patients had a mild infection. Eighty-eight patients (16.1%) died during hospitalization. One hundred and fifty-four (28.2%) patients had at least one neurological symptom. Thirty-five (6.4%) patients manifested with only neurological symptoms at hospital admission. The most frequent neurological symptoms were headache (15.2%), taste and smell disorders (9.1%), and myalgia (6.6%). The other initial neurological manifestations were acute cerebral ischemic stroke, impaired consciousness, epileptic seizure, and posterior reversible encephalopathy. The late-onset neurological complications were autoimmune encephalitis and Guillain-Barre syndrome. The neurological manifestation was linked to the severity of disease (P = 0.005) but not correlated with mortality (P = 0.137). Conclusion: Neurological symptoms were frequent in COVID-19 patients. The neurological symptoms can be the initial symptoms or can be late-onset complications of COVID-19.
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Understanding pathophysiology of cluster headache: Heart rate variability and parasympathetic activation p. 146
Erdi Sahin, Esme Ekizoglu, Elif Kocasoy Orhan, Ahmet Kaya Bilge, Betul Baykan
Aim: The underlying mechanisms of cluster headache (CH) have not been fully understood yet. The cranial autonomic activation suggests that both sympathetic and parasympathetic systems are impaired in the clinical presentation; however, the systemic autonomic involvement during pain-free episodes is not well-known. Methods: Thirty-five subjects were included in 24 h Holter monitoring and electrophysiological studies in this controlled study. Results: In Holter monitoring, heart rate variability parameters, RMSSD (P = 0.001), and pNN50 (P = 0.024) were significantly higher in patients compared to age and gender-matched controls. The R-R variations during breathing and deep breathing and sympathetic skin responses of all patients were normal. Conclusions: High RMSSD and pNN50 levels are the two indicators of increased parasympathetic activity in CH patients. Considering the intense stress because of severe pain of the CH patients, who are mostly adult men and smokers, there is an urgent need for broader studies with prospective follow-up in terms of cardiac health.
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Clinical course and outcomes of complicated mild traumatic brain injury in children: A single-center series of 124 cases p. 151
Sahin Hanalioglu, Damla Hanalioglu, Cagri Elbir, Omer Selcuk Sahin, Balkan Sahin, Mehmet Erhan Turkoglu, Huseyin Hayri Kertmen
Objective: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) constitutes majority of TBI cases. A considerable portion of mTBI cases has intracranial imaging abnormalities (complicated mTBI), which pose challenges in the diagnosis and management to clinicians. Here, we aimed to evaluate the early clinical course and outcomes of pediatric complicated mTBI cases treated at a large-volume tertiary referral center. Materials and Methods: A single-center retrospective cohort study was conducted at a large-volume tertiary trauma referral center for 12-month period between 2017 and 2018. Pediatric mTBI cases with at least one of the following computed tomography (CT) findings were included a depressed skull fracture, pneumocephalus, intracranial hemorrhage, edema, or contusion. Demographic, clinical, and radiological data were collected and analyzed. Results: One hundred and twenty-four patients with complicated mTBI were identified. Falls were the leading mechanisms of trauma (71.8%). Most patients (90.3%) had a Glasgow coma score (GCS) of 15 at initial evaluation. Most frequent radiological findings on initial CT scan were epidural hematoma (EDH) (34.7%) and pneumocephalus (31.5%), followed by subdural hematoma (SDH) (19.4%), subarachnoid hemorrhage (16.9%), contusion (14.5%), and depressed skull fracture (8.1%). Radiological findings in the routine repeat CT scan were stable in 55.6% of the patients, whereas the findings progressed in 15.3% and improved in 29% of patients during this interval period (median 7 h). Neurosurgical operation was performed in 7 (5.6%) patients. Thirty-six (29%) patients were identified as having clinically important TBI (ciTBI). Average length of stay at emergency department was 9.7 ± 4.9 h, and the average length of hospital stay was 3.6 ± 2.3 days. Multivariate analysis revealed that age, GCS, pneumocephalus, depressed skull fracture, EDH, and SDH were independent predictors of ciTBI. Conclusion: Pediatric complicated mTBI is associated with higher rates of hospitalization and therefore ciTBI but relatively lower rates of need for neurosurgery. Effective decision-making tools and algorithms are needed to guide optimal management strategies of these patients.
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Axonal excitability findings in acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy related to SARS-CoV-2 p. 158
Abir Alaamel, Rıfat Şahin, Merve Hashan, Tutku Taşkınoğlu, Tuğba Özel, Nazan Şimşek Erdem, Hilmi Uysal
Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is a disorder of the peripheral nervous system characterized by acute-onset ascendance paresis. We present a patient who was diagnosed as having facial-onset acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy after being infected with SARS-CoV-2. A 51-year-old man presented to the emergency department with facial diplegia. He then developed bilateral ascendance paralysis. He had noticed that for 1 month, he had smell and taste disturbances. SARS-CoV-2 infection was suspected. Nasopharyngeal swab polymerase chain reaction test was negative, but anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody was found to be positive. A nerve conduction study showed prolonged motor distal and F wave latencies with decreased motor and sensory compound muscle action potential amplitudes. Lumbar puncture revealed albuminocytologic dissociation. According to the neurologic examination and laboratory findings, the patient was diagnosed as having acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. An axonal excitability study revealed fanning in pattern with prolonged refractoriness, which indicates nodal sodium channel disturbances. Facial-onset SARS-CoV-2–related GBS has been rarely reported; however, facial involvement seems to be one of the features of the neurologic findings.
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Rituximab-induced leukocytoclastic vasculitis p. 161
Damla Cetinkaya Tezer, Ipek Gungor Dogan, Cigdem Dicle Arican, Serkan Demir, Melih Tutuncu
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