• Users Online: 738
  • Print this page
  • Email this page

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2023  |  Volume : 40  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 9-14

The relationship between transversus abdominis and internal oblique thickness and disease-related characteristics in Parkinson's disease: An ultrasound-based study

1 Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Institute of Health Sciences; Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey
2 Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey
3 Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tarsus University, Mersin, Turkey
4 Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey

Date of Submission24-May-2022
Date of Decision08-Feb-2023
Date of Acceptance02-Mar-2023
Date of Web Publication29-Mar-2023

Correspondence Address:
Burcin Aktar
Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Institute of Health Sciences, Dokuz Eylul University, TR-35340, Balcova, Izmir
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/nsn.nsn_97_22

Rights and Permissions

Background and Aim: The core muscles are essential for spinal stability during functional activities. Trunk muscle function is affected by specific neurodegenerative processes of Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aimed to investigate whether changes in transversus abdominis (TrA) and internal oblique (IO) thickness during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) were associated with clinical manifestations, core endurance, and functional mobility in patients with PD. Materials and Methods: We included patients with a modified Hoehn and Yahr staging of 3 or lower. TrA and IO muscle thickness were measured using ultrasound both at rest and during ADIM, and the percent change (%) was calculated to assess TrA and IO activation. Patients performed core endurance (prone bridge and sit-ups) and functional mobility tests (timed “up and go” [TUG] and five times sit-to-stand [FTSTS]). All assessments were conducted during the “on” phase. Results: Five female and 17 male patients were included in this study. We found a statistically significant correlation between ultrasound parameters of IO and the clinical manifestations of PD (P < 0.05). Correlations were observed between TrA percent change and prone bridge, sit-ups, TUG, and FTSTS (P < 0.05). Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ultrasound imaging-based study to demonstrate the relationship between TrA and IO muscle thickness and clinical outcomes, and functional performance in patients with PD. Percentage changes in IO were associated with the clinical manifestations of PD. Increased activation of TrA during ADIM was associated with improved core endurance and mobility. The results suggest that a trunk-specific exercise program may be the cornerstone in the treatment of PD-related changes.

Keywords: Internal oblique, Parkinson's disease, transversus abdominis, ultrasound imaging

How to cite this article:
Aktar B, Ozyurek S, Goz E, Colakoglu BD, Balci B. The relationship between transversus abdominis and internal oblique thickness and disease-related characteristics in Parkinson's disease: An ultrasound-based study. Neurol Sci Neurophysiol 2023;40:9-14

How to cite this URL:
Aktar B, Ozyurek S, Goz E, Colakoglu BD, Balci B. The relationship between transversus abdominis and internal oblique thickness and disease-related characteristics in Parkinson's disease: An ultrasound-based study. Neurol Sci Neurophysiol [serial online] 2023 [cited 2023 Jun 10];40:9-14. Available from: http://www.nsnjournal.org/text.asp?2023/40/1/9/372787

  Introduction Top

Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common age-related neurodegenerative diseases, manifesting as bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, and postural instability.[1] Rigidity, dystonia, impaired sensory input, and musculoskeletal muscle weakness contribute to axial deformities that are disabling motor complications in patients with PD.[2]

Trunk control has been identified as an important prerequisite for normal head, trunk, and pelvis movements and functional tasks such as sitting, standing, and walking.[3],[4] In particular, the transversus abdominis (TrA) and internal oblique (IO) muscles are essential for maintaining the stability of posture and controlling the body during occupational and daily living skills, as well as prevention of falls in older people.[5],[6],[7] When thinking about patients with camptocormia or severe postural instability, it is highly unlikely that the trunk muscle function of patients with PD is effective and functional.[8],[9] In addition, the increased axial rigidity of patients with PD impairs their trunk function and locomotion.[3],[4] Therefore, these factors may lead to decreased independence in daily life and an increased risk of falls.[10]

Real-time ultrasound imaging is commonly used to assess the size and activation of the core muscles in rehabilitation. It is a quick and easy-to-administer, noninvasive method of assessing muscle performance. Many researchers have focused on evaluating the thickness of the TrA under both static and dynamic conditions because it plays a unique role in spinal stability. The abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) is a fundamental component of activation or training of isolated TrA contraction.[11] This maneuver is designed for preferential activation of the TrA with minimal recruitment of the internal and external oblique muscles.[12],[13] Due to the above mechanism, ADIM is a popular volitional test among physicians to assess TrA function using ultrasound imaging.[14] The reliability of ultrasound imaging for abdominal muscles is ≥0.86 for intra-rater and inter-rater determination of resting position, and ≥0.76 for percentage change in muscle thickness in older adults.[15]

Recently, increasing evidence has been presented in observational studies of the architectural features of these muscle groups in patients with neurologic diseases.[16],[17] However, the relationship between activations of TrA and IO using ultrasound imaging and clinical manifestations, core muscle performance, and functional mobility in PD has not been investigated previously. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate whether changes in TrA and IO thickness during ADIM were associated with clinical signs, core endurance, and functional mobility in patients with idiopathic PD.

  Materials and Methods Top

The study had a cross-sectional design and data were collected from May 2018 to November 2019. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Dokuz Eylul University (protocol number: 3958-GOA, decision number: 2018/11-06) and conducted in accordance with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. All subjects who agreed to participate gave written informed consent.

Twenty-two patients with idiopathic PD were recruited according to the United Kingdom Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank diagnostic criteria. The inclusion criteria were Modified Hoehn and Yahr staging <4,[18] body mass index (BMI), which is a confounding factor in measuring muscle thickness,[19] <30 kg/m2, and a mini-mental state examination score ≥ 24. The exclusion criteria were dystonia and camptocormia, the presence of neurologic conditions other than PD, and orthopedic/musculoskeletal and cognitive impairments that would affect assessment procedures. All assessments were conducted during the “on” phase.

Ultrasound imaging

A two-dimensional ultrasonography device (LOGIQ-e, GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI, USA) with a multi-frequency linear array transducer (GE 12 L-RS, bandwidth 5–13 MHz, footprint 12.7 mm × 47.1 mm) at a central frequency of 10 MHz was used for capturing B-mode images of the TrA and IO both at rest and during ADIM.

The ultrasound images were taken while the participants were in the supine hook-lying position with pillows under their knees and hips at 45° of flexion. The transducer was placed perpendicular to the right anterolateral abdominal muscle along a line midway between the inferior angle of the rib cage and the iliac crest. To obtain the standardized transducer position, the anterior fascial insertion of the TrA muscle was located approximately 2.0 cm from the medial edge of the ultrasound image [Figure 1].[15],[20]
Figure 1: Transducer location (pink, top line: the inferior angle of the rib cage; pink, bottom line: the iliac crest; green, middle line: a line midway between the inferior angle of the rib cage and the iliac crest)

Click here to view

Ultrasound images for the right side were obtained after calm expiration at rest and immediately upon performing the ADIM. Participants were provided with standard instructions on how to perform ADIM. Then, the following instructions were given: “Take a relaxed breath in and out, hold the breath out, and then draw in your lower abdomen without moving your spine.”[12]

All measurements were performed by the same investigator (S.O), a physiotherapist with 5 years of experience who was trained in musculoskeletal and rehabilitative ultrasound imaging, involving a 2-day introductory course (accredited by the Royal College of Radiologists, the British Medical Ultrasound Society and the European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology). The thickness of TrA at rest and during ADIM was obtained between the superficial and deep borders of the TrA muscle, as visualized by the hyperechoic fascial lines [Figure 2]. Measurements were performed perpendicular to the muscle fascia using caliper-based tools included in the software of the ultrasound scanner and were recorded in cm. Three measurements were recorded and the average of the three values was used for statistical analysis. In addition, the TrA and IO percent change (%) was calculated to determine the change in muscle thickness between at rest and during ADIM as per the following formula:[21]
Figure 2: Ultrasound image of right anterolateral abdominal wall muscles. (a) muscles at rest, (b) muscles during ADIM at end of calm expiration. The thickness of the TrA muscle is identified as the dashed line with arrows. EO: external oblique, IO: internal oblique, TrA: transversus abdominis, ADIM: Abdominal drawing-in maneuver

Click here to view

Clinical outcomes of Parkinson's disease

The Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) parts I, II, and III were used to define impairments and disabilities related to the disease. Part I and II, respectively, evaluate nonmotor and motor features of experiences in daily living. Part III assesses the motor signs of patients.[22] We have summarized the following four subscores from MDS-UPDRS Part III: tremor (15–18 items), rigidity (item 3), bradykinesia (2, 4–9 items), and axial (1, 9–13 items) subscores.[23]

Core muscle endurance

To evaluate core muscle endurance, the “prone bridge (plank)” and “sit-ups” were used. The prone bridge test was performed when the participant was in the prone position with their forearms and toes on the mat. Participants were asked to keep their shoulders, back, hips, and ankles in a straight position for as long as possible during the test. The test was terminated when the participants lost the straight posture. Two trials were performed and the best score was used for analysis. The test is valid and reliable for evaluating trunk muscle performance in the elderly.[24] Sit-ups were performed by requesting the participant to lift the bottom corner of the scapula from the ground. The feet were held by the investigator while the knees were bent 90° in the supine position. We recorded how many times the participant was able to perform the test within 30 s.[25]

Functional mobility

To assess functional mobility, the timed “up and go” (TUG) and the “five times sit-to-stand (FTSTS)” tests were used. TUG consisted of standing up from a chair, walking a distance of 3 m, turning around, walking back to the chair, and sitting down again. Scores were recorded in seconds. A lower score indicates better balance and functional mobility. High test-retest and inter-rater reliability have been demonstrated in patients with PD.[26] The FTSTS measured, in seconds, the time necessary for participants to fully stand up and sit down from a chair five times, as quickly as possible, and uninterruptedly. Participants were asked to keep their arms crossed over their chests during the task. High inter-rater and test-retest reliability has been established in PD.[27]

Data analysis

Statistical analysis was conducted using the IBM SPSS software (version 24.0, IBM Corp., Armonk, New York, USA). The Shapiro–Wilk test was used to evaluate the normality of data distribution. Data are presented as median (25th–75th interquartile range) or frequencies and percentages. Spearman's correlation was performed to determine the correlation of the variables. The correlation coefficients (Rho) were classified as very weak (Rho = 0.00–0.19), weak (Rho = 0.20–0.39), moderate (Rho = 0.40–0.59), strong (Rho = 0.60–0.79), and very strong (Rho = 0.80–1.00).[28] P < 0.05 was accepted for statistical significance.

A post hoc power analysis was performed using the G*Power (version 3.1, Dusseldorf University, Germany) software to detect the power of the study. The power of the present study was calculated based on the results of the correlation between “the percentage change in TrA” and “FTSTS” and found as 86.15%.

  Results Top

A total of 22 patients with PD were included. The demographic data, disease-specific clinical characteristics, performance-based measures, muscle thickness, and percent change for TrA and IO are summarized in [Table 1].
Table 1: Demographic and clinical features (n=22)

Click here to view

The correlation coefficients between the ultrasound imaging parameters of the TrA and IO muscles and demographic and disease-specific clinical outcomes are shown in [Table 2]. We found no significant correlation between ultrasound parameters of TrA and age, BMI, and clinical manifestations of PD (P > 0.05), whereas ultrasound parameters of IO at rest and percentage change were significantly correlated with age, MDS-UPDRS I, MDS-UPDRS II, rigidity and bradykinesia subscores of MDS-UPDRS III (P < 0.05).
Table 2: Correlation (rho) between muscle thicknesses and clinical manifestations of parkinson's disease

Click here to view

The correlations between the ultrasound imaging of the TrA and IO and performance-based measures are given in [Table 3]. The prone bridge (moderate; Rho = 0.513, P = 0.015), and sit-ups (strong; Rho = 0.663, P = 0.001) were positively correlated with TrA percent change, whereas a negative correlation was found between TrA percent change and TUG (moderate; Rho = −0.474, P = 0.026), and FTSTS (moderate; rho = −0.593, P = 0.004). No statistically significant correlation was found between the percentage change in IO and prone bridge, sit-ups, TUG, and FTSTS (P > 0.05). There were also no statistically significant correlations between TrA and IO muscle thickness (both at rest and during ADIM) and core muscle endurance and functional mobility (P > 0.05).
Table 3: Correlation (rho) between muscle thicknesses and performance-based outcomes

Click here to view

  Discussion Top

To the best of our knowledge, there has been limited research into measuring the abdominal muscles of patients with PD using real-time ultrasound imaging. Therefore, this is the first study to indicate the association between TrA and IO muscle thickness and clinical outcomes, and functional performance in patients with PD. Our results showed that the percentage changes in IO were also associated with disease-specific manifestations of PD. Greater changes in the TrA muscle during ADIM were associated with better core endurance and mobility.

A previous report on normal subjects showed that the resting thickness of the TrA and IO muscles was 0.36 ± 0.09 cm and 0.85 ± 0.22 cm in women, respectively, whereas it was 0.45 ± 0.13 cm and 1.18 ± 0.27 cm, respectively, in men.[29] Our results showed that the TrA and IO muscle thickness in women and men at rest was 0.35 ± 0.04 cm and 0.67 ± 0.12 cm, and 0.35 ± 0.08 cm and 0.69 ± 0.17 cm, respectively. It is well known that males have a significantly larger muscle mass than females, which explains the sex difference.[30] In addition, TrA and IO muscle thicknesses were lower in our sample population compared with normal subjects.

We speculated that patients who had better PD-related motor clinical outcomes might be associated with greater TrA and IO muscle thickness change. Our results support the association between motor symptoms and the ability to activate IO, but not the ability to activate TrA. Our sample included 13 (59.1%) patients without clinically identifiable postural instability (modified Hoehn and Yahr scale ≤2). The current finding may illustrate that patients with early-to-mid-stage PD may have postural instability due to the inability to selectively activate TrA. Further high-quality clinical research with a larger sample size is needed to confirm the effects of abdominal muscle thickness on postural control in patients with PD who have different severities of postural deformities or who are at different stages of the disease. Furthermore, future studies should include longer follow-up periods.

Our results surprisingly revealed that the ability to activate the IO muscle was associated with the nonmotor experience of daily living (MDS-UPDRS Part I). This strong relationship may be dependent on the subjects' cognitive impairment, depressed mood, anxious mood, and apathy. It may be logical to speculate that a decline in apathy would contribute to a decrease in ADIM performance. We suggest disease-specific assessments for further investigation to explore the impact of nonmotor symptoms in patients with PD.

Mobility is defined as the physiologic ability of a person to move independently and safely in a variety of environments so that functional activities and tasks can be accomplished.[31] The reason to use the FTSTS for mobility, which requires coordination, balance, mobility, and strength when rising from the chair, is that momentum control results from coordinated postural control.[32] TUG includes the turning phase and turn-to-sit transition, in addition to sit-to-stand performance in the FTSTS.[26] Turning while walking occurs frequently in activities of daily living, and is a challenging feature of locomotion.[33] The successful maintenance of mobility in daily life depends on these skills. In patients with PD, the neuromuscular impairment of trunk muscles leads to a decline in physical function and mobility.[34]

In our study, the ability to activate the TrA muscle of patients with PD was associated with mobility and physical performance (TUG and FTSTS). These results were expected because the TrA muscle plays a greater role in spinal stabilization compared with the other abdominal muscles in functional tasks.[5],[6]

This study provided objective evidence for muscle thickness. However, it has several limitations. First, the current study included a relatively small sample, and 17 of the 22 patients were men. Second, only patients with mild-to-moderate PD were studied; neither patients with severe PD nor healthy controls were included. Finally, we performed ultrasound imaging to assess the activation by the change in muscle thickness, and this method could not provide information on the timing of muscle activation.

  Conclusion Top

This study demonstrated that IO muscle activity could be an important biomarker for disease-related clinical outcomes of patients with PD. TrA activation in patients with PD may provide preliminary evidence of their core endurance and mobility. Therefore, we recommend an exercise program specifically aimed at improving the trunk muscle function of patients. Further studies are needed to determine the efficacy of TrA and IO muscle activation on abnormal posture and trunk muscle functions of trunk muscles in this population.


The authors would like to thank the invaluable help for English editing provided by David Chapman.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Jankovic J, Tan EK. Parkinson's disease: Etiopathogenesis and treatment. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2020;91:795-808.  Back to cited text no. 1
Doherty KM, van de Warrenburg BP, Peralta MC, Silveira-Moriyama L, Azulay JP, Gershanik OS, et al. Postural deformities in Parkinson's disease. Lancet Neurol 2011;10:538-49.  Back to cited text no. 2
Van Emmerik RE, Wagenaar RC, Winogrodzka A, Wolters EC. Identification of axial rigidity during locomotion in Parkinson disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1999;80:186-91.  Back to cited text no. 3
Wright WG, Gurfinkel VS, Nutt J, Horak FB, Cordo PJ. Axial hypertonicity in Parkinson's disease: Direct measurements of trunk and hip torque. Exp Neurol 2007;208:38-46.  Back to cited text no. 4
Hodges PW. Is there a role for transversus abdominis in lumbo-pelvic stability? Man Ther 1999;4:74-86.  Back to cited text no. 5
Urquhart DM, Hodges PW, Story IH. Postural activity of the abdominal muscles varies between regions of these muscles and between body positions. Gait Posture 2005;22:295-301.  Back to cited text no. 6
Granacher U, Gollhofer A, Hortobágyi T, Kressig RW, Muehlbauer T. The importance of trunk muscle strength for balance, functional performance, and fall prevention in seniors: A systematic review. Sports Med 2013;43:627-41.  Back to cited text no. 7
Kim SD, Allen NE, Canning CG, Fung VS. Postural instability in patients with Parkinson's disease. Epidemiology, pathophysiology and management. CNS Drugs 2013;27:97-112.  Back to cited text no. 8
Margraf NG, Rohr A, Granert O, Hampel J, Drews A, Deuschl G. MRI of lumbar trunk muscles in patients with Parkinson's disease and camptocormia. J Neurol 2015;262:1655-64.  Back to cited text no. 9
Bridgewater KJ, Sharpe MH. Trunk muscle performance in early Parkinson's disease. Phys Ther 1998;78:566-76.  Back to cited text no. 10
Teyhen DS, Gill NW, Whittaker JL, Henry SM, Hides JA, Hodges P. Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging of the abdominal muscles. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2007;37:450-66.  Back to cited text no. 11
Hides J, Wilson S, Stanton W, McMahon S, Keto H, McMahon K, et al. An MRI investigation into the function of the transversus abdominis muscle during “drawing-in” of the abdominal wall. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2006;31:E175-8.  Back to cited text no. 12
Urquhart DM, Hodges PW, Allen TJ, Story IH. Abdominal muscle recruitment during a range of voluntary exercises. Man Ther 2005;10:144-53.  Back to cited text no. 13
Hebert JJ, Koppenhaver SL, Parent EC, Fritz JM. A systematic review of the reliability of rehabilitative ultrasound imaging for the quantitative assessment of the abdominal and lumbar trunk muscles. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2009;34:E848-56.  Back to cited text no. 14
Wilson A, Hides JA, Blizzard L, Callisaya M, Cooper A, Srikanth VK, et al. Measuring ultrasound images of abdominal and lumbar multifidus muscles in older adults: A reliability study. Man Ther 2016;23:114-9.  Back to cited text no. 15
Kirmaci ZİK, Firat T, Özkur HA, Neyal AM, Neyal A, Ergun N. Muscle architecture and its relationship with lower extremity muscle strength in multiple sclerosis. Acta Neurol Belg 2022;122:1521-8.  Back to cited text no. 16
Bissolotti L, Ruggeri J, Rota M, Calza S, Cosimo C. Muscle echo intensity of abdominal wall in Parkinson's disease and healthy controls: A cross sectional study. Neurol Sci 2020;41:3201-7.  Back to cited text no. 17
Goetz CG, Poewe W, Rascol O, Sampaio C, Stebbins GT, Counsell C, et al. Movement disorder society task force report on the hoehn and yahr staging scale: Status and recommendations. Mov Disord 2004;19:1020-8.  Back to cited text no. 18
Linek P. The importance of body mass normalisation for ultrasound measurement of the transversus abdominis muscle: The effect of age, gender and sport practice. Musculoskelet Sci Pract 2017;28:65-70.  Back to cited text no. 19
Hides JA, Miokovic T, Belavý DL, Stanton WR, Richardson CA. Ultrasound imaging assessment of abdominal muscle function during drawing-in of the abdominal wall: An intrarater reliability study. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2007;37:480-6.  Back to cited text no. 20
Teyhen DS, Bluemle LN, Dolbeer JA, Baker SE, Molloy JM, Whittaker J, et al. Changes in lateral abdominal muscle thickness during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver in those with lumbopelvic pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2009;39:791-8.  Back to cited text no. 21
Akbostanci MC, Bayram E, Yilmaz V, Rzayev S, Özkan S, Tokcaer AB, et al. Turkish standardization of movement disorders society unified Parkinson's disease rating scale and unified dyskinesia rating scale. Mov Disord Clin Pract 2018;5:54-9.  Back to cited text no. 22
Li X, Xing Y, Martin-Bastida A, Piccini P, Auer DP. Patterns of grey matter loss associated with motor subscores in early Parkinson's disease. Neuroimage Clin 2018;17:498-504.  Back to cited text no. 23
Bohannon RW, Steffl M, Glenney SS, Green M, Cashwell L, Prajerova K, et al. The prone bridge test: Performance, validity, and reliability among older and younger adults. J Bodyw Mov Ther 2018;22:385-9.  Back to cited text no. 24
Ergun N, Baltacı G. Spor Yaralanmalarinda Fizyoterapi ve Rehabilitasyon Prensipleri. Ankara: Pelikan Yayınevi; 2014.  Back to cited text no. 25
Morris S, Morris ME, Iansek R. Reliability of measurements obtained with the timed “Up & Go” test in people with Parkinson disease. Phys Ther 2001;81:810-8.  Back to cited text no. 26
Duncan RP, Leddy AL, Earhart GM. Five times sit-to-stand test performance in Parkinson's disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2011;92:1431-6.  Back to cited text no. 27
Evans JD. Straightforward Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences. Pacific Grove;Thomson Brooks/Cole Publishing Co; 1996.  Back to cited text no. 28
Fukumoto Y, Ikezoe T, Yamada Y, Tsukagoshi R, Nakamura M, Takagi Y, et al. Age-related ultrasound changes in muscle quantity and quality in women. Ultrasound Med Biol 2015;41:3013-7.  Back to cited text no. 29
Tahan N, Khademi-Kalantari K, Mohseni-Bandpei MA, Mikaili S, Baghban AA, Jaberzadeh S. Measurement of superficial and deep abdominal muscle thickness: An ultrasonography study. J Physiol Anthropol 2016;35:17.  Back to cited text no. 30
King LA, Horak FB. Delaying mobility disability in people with Parkinson disease using a sensorimotor agility exercise program. Phys Ther 2009;89:384-93.  Back to cited text no. 31
Riley PO, Krebs DE, Popat RA. Biomechanical analysis of failed sit-to-stand. IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng 1997;5:353-9.  Back to cited text no. 32
Crenna P, Carpinella I, Rabuffetti M, Calabrese E, Mazzoleni P, Nemni R, et al. The association between impaired turning and normal straight walking in Parkinson's disease. Gait Posture 2007;26:172-8.  Back to cited text no. 33
Cole MH, Naughton GA, Silburn PA. Neuromuscular impairments are associated with impaired head and trunk stability during gait in Parkinson fallers. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2017;31:34-47.  Back to cited text no. 34


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  In this article
Materials and Me...
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded96    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal